July 2021 published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, show that turbines arranged in rows facing the wind produced 50% more power than those arranged in wind-facing columns. But they also found that these gains were lost after a farm reached around 30km in size, because the drag created by large windfarms slows the wind down.
When wind turbines are arranged in clusters, their performance is mutually affected, and their energy generation is reduced relative to what it would be if they were widely separated. Land-area power densities of small wind farms can exceed 10 W/m2, and wakes are several rotor diameters in length. In contrast, large-scale wind farms have an upper-limit power density in the order of 1 W/m2 and wakes that can extend several tens of kilometers. Here, we address two important questions: 1) How large can a wind farm be before its generation reaches energy replenishment limits and 2) How far apart must large wind farms be spaced to avoid inter–wind-farm interference? We characterize controls on these spatial and temporal scales by running a set of idealized atmospheric simulations using the Weather and Research Forecasting model. Power generation and wind speed within and over the wind farm show that a timescale inversely proportional to the Coriolis parameter governs such transition, and the corresponding length scale is obtained by multiplying the timescale by the geostrophic wind speed. A geostrophic wind of 8 m/s and a Coriolis parameter of 1.05 × 10−4 rad/s (latitude of ∼46°) would give a transitional scale of about 30 km. Wind farms smaller than this result in greater power densities and shorter wakes. Larger wind farms result instead in power densities that asymptotically reach their minimum and wakes that reach their maximum extent.
In the summer the windmills heated up the wind farm by 0.7˚C per decade and in the winter slightly less by 0.5˚C per decade.
This is measured in relation to the region immediately around the wind turbines. The warming effect was particularly noticeable at night, but hardly or not at all during the day.
“This makes sense because during the night the ground gets much colder than the air a few hundred meters above the Earth’s surface and the windmills create turbulence causing the layers of air to mix,” explains Steven Sherwood (University of New South Wales, Australia). As a result, the soil warms up at night. See image 1: Roscoe Wind Farm Texas.
Research: Steven Sherwood (University of New South Wales, Australia
This changes the cloud forming! We all know its very sensitive. The end of tourism that coms to South Estonia for sun and heat. Sea current stops and the sea turns green of algae. That’s not the green we want, the ecosystem collapse.
Windmills cause local climate change, this new research shows.
The EU law violated that stopped all building of windmill parks in the EU.
New field research is needed according to the new EU law to receive or keep a valid wind park permit.
The competent authority must set standards for each KMH. Standards must be properly be substantiated for the specific KMH. Need a thorough environmental assessment is needed Actual measurements and real research are needed for a specific wind farm. acting unlawfully justify a claim because of improper governmental management. See other posts or the link to your language version of the EU law. eesti Keel, Euroopa Liidu Kohus PRESSITEADE nr 77/20 Luxembourg, 25. juuni 2020 Kohtuotsus (kohtuasi C-24/19).
Simply explained the law demands that humans are protected by maximum risks levels set upfront
Risk levels must be a part of the permit. Just like we do with other stuff, like a vaccine for example. In the EU we do not accept the Russian Sputnik vaccine, because it was not tested upfront. This law demands we test and limit the risks upfront just as we do with medicine. Doesn’t it sound logical? Windmills can kill: “Eitapjatuulikutele” or “no killer mills” is our name!
EU councils of state demand EU nations to set the values that do not harm people.
All over the EU windfarms are stopped. The Dutch court ordered a stop on all new building permits until the parliament decides on the critical values that must be based upon science upon real measurable data. Not a model. So, first, build 400-meter test windmills, then measure and research upon open science( Estonia has not we explained in other posts). Then set values. When governments (like Häädemeeste parish on august 5th 2021) try to bypass these rules they are liable because of improper management and ignoring the law. It’s above all very undemocratic, just before elections, after the Sea planning was killed, the parish rejected KMH, The Green deal offers an alternative (see other recent posts). If they still do so, the permits they all cheat on are void (as if they did not exist). Here is the Dutch newspaper that explains. https://www.nu.nl/economie/6142649/kabinet-moet-bouwregels-voor-windmolens-aanpassen.html
This EU law applies also uneconomic use of resources, article 5 of the Estonian constitution.
Estonians remember the soviet times when uneconomic usage polluted and killed people. To prevent that from happening again all activity must be economically sound in Estonia. Demand-driven, not pushed by plans or the state like in the old times. For example. Estonia now builds 7 times more wind energy than it needs. Making more than you need is uneconomic too.
It’s also not the task of Estonian Energy to risk business outside the country too. Risks like this are for the taxpayer. You cannot copy a windmills success from wind west-EU to 7 times less windy and icy Estonia and expect to make a profit. Happy to have art 5. and this EU law to protect the people. This law protects against dumb businessmen who make their profit based on subsidations and selling Estonian land and sea (&forest) abroad. Please support us & Estonia by telling this story around or donate!